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Thursday 19th Nov. 2015


i. APC
ii. PDP
iii. AFGA
iv. KOWA


(i) To contest elections:
In most democracies, elections are fought mainly
among the candidates put up by political parties.
Parties select their candidates in different ways.
In India, top party leaders choose candidates for contesting elections.

(ii) Forming policies and
programmes: Parties put forward different policies and programmes and the voters choose
from them. Each of us may have different
opinions and views on what policies are suitable
for the society.

(iii) Making laws:
When parties come to power, they make laws for
the country. Formally, laws are debated and
passed in the legislature. Members of the ruling
party follow the directions of party leaders,
irrespective of their personal opinions.

(iv) Parties form and run governments:
Parties recruit leaders, train them and then make
them ministers to run the government in the way
they want.

(v) Role of opposition:
Parties that lose in elections, play the role of
opposition to the parties in power by criticising
the government for its failures or wrong policies.

(i) Alleged rigging of the western election of 1965.
(ii) The fear of one tribe dominating the others resulting in 1966 coup
(iii) The abolition of federation in place of unitary system of government by general Aguiyi Ironsi
(iv) The refusal of general Ironsi to bring January 15, 1966 coup plotters to book paled a part in causing the civil war
(v) The infusion of ethnicity into Nigeria army

(i) Regionalisation of political parties: There was regionalization of political parties especially during the first Republic.

(ii) Desire to control the federal government: The desire to control government is viewed as automatic control of the country.

(iii) Tribalisation and politicizing the army: Nigerian army in the first republic was tribalised and politicized.

(iv) Corruption and Nepotism: Large scale corruption and nepotism that pervaded the first and second republic played a major role in military intervention in Nigeria.

The state and government are inseparable in the scheme of things.The state is politically organised body of prople occupying a defined geographical area with an organised legitimate government.Government on the other hand is a feature of a state.It is a machinery set up by the government to organise and realise the set objectives and goals of the state.No state exist bwithout government otherwise anarchy would reign.The people making up the the state has a government to administer the area and these involves the three organs of the government in place. The sovereignity of the state is rested with the government and government excercises its trust for the state

-Large size: The impact of the activities of pressure groups having large membership are usually felt more than those with small membership
-Dedication and unity: The existence of high degree of dedication and unity among its members in pursuance of their goals and objectives
-Adequate funds: There should be availability of adequate funds with which to spnsor programmes
-Capability of the leadership: The more acceptable,pragmatic and charismatic the leaders are the more effective the pressure group
-Relevance of its aims: If there is popularity in its aims,objectives and demands then its operations will be effective
-Attitude of the government: Attitude of the government of the day towards the activities of pressure groups is very important.The more tolerant the government is the more effective the operations of the pressure group
-Good strategy: With good organisation,the operation of the pressure group can be effectivge

-Principal judicial organ: International judicial court of justice is the principal judicial organ of U.N.O
-Settles disputes among countries: ICJ mediates in disputes among member countries of U.N.O brought before it
-Gives advisory opinion: It gives advisory opinion on legal matters to organs and specialised agencies of U.N.O
-Decides the amount of compensation: It is the responsibility of the court to decide the amount of compensation or reparation that will be paid in case of breach of international treaties
and obligations
-Interprets international convention and agreement: The court also interpret international conventions and agreements
-Mediates disputes concerning breach of an international obligation:It mediates in disputes concerning the existence of any fact which is established would constitute a breach of an international obligation


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