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100% Real Waec Gce 2015 Agricultural Science Obj And Theory Answers.




AGRIC OBJ
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(1a)
(i) Crude farm tools:
-Farmers should be granted easy access to loan
-Government should provide agricultural
intervention funds.
-Agricultural extension workers should educate
farmers on importance of farm tools improvement
-Existing farm unions should intervene in providing
improved farm tools to farmers.
(ii) Decline in soil fertility:
-Erosion which leads to leaching of soil nutrients
should be checked.
-Formulation of effective environmental protection
policy by the government.
-fertilizers should be made available by the
government to farmers through agricultural
extension workers.
-Land pollution should be avoided

1b)The soil profile is defined as a vertical section
of the soil from the ground surface downwards to
where the soil meets the underlying rock.
1c)
i. Biotic factors and the prevalence of pests and
diseases. Site selection may consider the natural
population of certain organisms like bees and
other pollinators. Where the agriculture venture
involves the production of civet coffee or kape
alamid, farmlands adjacent to forested areas may
be preferred. But places with a long history of the
presence of serious pests and diseases may be
avoided. Likewise, caution should be exercised in
choosing farm sites dominated by weeds which
are difficult to eradicate.
ii. Accessibility. A farm that is managed as a
business must have access to supplies,
equipment, and the market. It must be provided
with infrastructures (e.g. roads) and, if the product
is intended to be marketed elsewhere, shipping
facilities or airports. Moreover, there is a general
preference for farms in familiar locations and
which are easily accessible to owner-managers.
iii. Labor supply and cost. Skilled labor must be
available at reasonable cost. Otherwise, laborers
from other parts of the country may have to be
imported.
iv. Bureaucracy and investment benefits. Site
selection favors those locations where
bureaucratic red tape is minimal so that business
permits and other papers if so required can be
processed with haste. Likewise, countries and
localities which offer incentives, like tax
exemption, are preferred.


(2a)
(i) Climate:
-Rainfall
-Temperature
-Wind
(ii) Biotic:
-parasite
-Diseases
-Pests

(iii) Edaphic:
-Soil Texture
-Soil nutrient composition
-Soil pH

(2b)
I. ADVANTAGES:
(i) It increases crop yield
(ii) It reduces demand for labour
(iii) It saves time
(iv) It saves energy
(v) Encourages multiple cropping

II. DISADVANTAGES:
(i) Adoption of certain machines will lead to
unemployment.
(ii) High procurement and maintenance cost
(iii) Depreciation charges are high; this will reduce
the profit.
(iv) Machines are subject to break-down and lie
idle when electricity fails.


3ai)
Data: length=250m, breath=100m
area= length×breath
(250m×100m)=25000m=2.2B
hectares
3ii)
number of set=
250+100=350sets
3iii)
umtcost=5
total cost=350×5=1750
3b)
selective
exploration is the process of cutting or harvesting
only mature trees.
3c)
i) it increase soil erosion
ii) reduce
water percolation
iii) result in loss
of soil nutrients
iv) reduce the
amount of rainfall
v) lend to desertification
vi) reduce humus content of soil

(4a) Brooding refers to the period immediately
after hatch when special care and attention must
be given to chicks to ensure their health and
survival.
(4b) TABULATE:
Ruminants:
(i) Ruminants have stomachs with four chambers
that release nutrients from food by fermenting it
before digestion.
(ii) Most ruminants, have hardened gums instead
of upper front teeth, and all have split hooves.
Non-ruminants:
(i) Absence of stomachs with four chambers.
(ii) Presence of upper front teeth
(4c)
(i) To reduce spread of diseases
(ii) To prevent overcrowding in livestock
(iii) To reinforce or exaggerate desirable
characteristics
(iv) To remove undesirable characteristics from
the group
(v) To remove inferior breed from the group for a
uniform growth


(5a)
-demaind for maize in the market
-price of maize in the market
-use of modern technology in its provision
-government policy that favour or affect maize
production e.g availability of loan
and subsidy
-climatic conditions e.g rainfall that
determines its production
-climatic conditions e.g rainfall that
determines its production
(5b)
-lack of colaterals
-term of repayment are normally
unfavourable to farming
-there is high interest rate
-absence on insurance against risk and
uncertainties
-farmers often direct the loan to social
needs.
(5c)
natural selection:
this is the ability of individual animal to weather
through unfavourable
environmental forces to survive and
reproduce.
family selection:
animals are selected or rejected on basis
of the performance of their ancestors Artificial
selection:
this selection is done by man using his
intelligence and influence to select and
mate animals in order toincrease the nmber of
animals
progeny: animals are selected on the performance
of their progeny or offspring

6a)
agricultural extension is the
process which assist farmers through educational procedures in
improving farming methods and
techniques

6b)
i) link farmers and
consumer together
ii) create
employment for the agent in
marketing
iii) transport activities like vehicle are provided
iv)provide
income to the farmer
v)Price of
goods and services can be determine
vi) products can be regularly receive
by the customer

(6c)
-their survival -they provide large number of
seeds
-they adopt easily to water scarcity
(drought resistance)
-they are not soil selective
-they reproduce faster under adverse
condition
(6d)
(i)staking, mulching, training of urines,
irrigation,mnuring/fertilizer application,
breheading





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