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Agricultural Science 2015 Free Waec Expo Runz

+Wednesday, 6th May, 2015:
Agric Science 2(Essay) ---- 9.30am - 11.40am
Agric Science 1(Obj) ---- 11.40am - 12.30pm


Land ownership by leasehold is a contract existing
between a person called the leasor and another
called the lease of a piece of land for a specified
period of years while land ownership by freehold is a
system where a person pays a certain amount of
money for acquisition of a piece of land
-They sponsor research institutes to enhance the
productivity of farmers
-They provide chemicals such as herbicides,pesticides
etc for control of weed and insect
-They provide basic amenities for rural people
-They carry out research to improve or develop
breeds of animals
-Extension project are founded and funded by them
-it leads to scarcity of labourers resulting to high
labour cost
-High cost of labour therefore leads to high cost of
-It leads to decreased food and cash crop production
-It leads to decrease animal production
-It leads to poor adoption of agricultural innovations


(i) Reduces Greenhouse Effect: It also reduces the greenhouse effect by utilizing the gases being produced in landfills as forms of energy. This is a major reason why the use of biogas has started catching on.

(ii) Non-Polluting: It is also considered to be non-polluting in nature. The production of biogas does not require oxygen, which means that resources are conserved by not using any further fuel.

(i) Not Attractive on Large Scale: The process of using biogas on a large scale is not economically viable and it is very difficult to enhance the efficiency of bio gas systems.

(ii) Unstable: It is also somewhat unstable, making it prone to explosions if the methane comes in contact with oxygen and become flammable in nature.

– Cutlass
– Hoe
– Garden fork
– Rake
– Shovel
– Sprayers
– Watering can
– Wheel barrow

(2d) Denitrification is the process of releasing nitrogen back into the atmosphere. its also the biological conversion of nitrate to nitrogen gas, nitric oxide or nitrous oxide.
These compounds are gaseous compounds and are not readily available for microbial growth; therefore they are typically released to the atmosphere. Nitrogen gas makes up over 70% of atmospheric gases, thus the release of N2 to the atmosphere is benign.

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2e)Mineral Matter.
The mineral matter represents small rock
fragments of the soil. It forms the bulk of
about 45% of total volume of the soil. It
consists of gravel, stones, sand, silt and
Importance/effects of Mineral matter on
(i) It forms the solid part of the soil which
provide support for plants
(ii) Mineral matter is the main source of
plants nutrients such as Nitrogen, Calcium,
Magnesium, Iron etc.
(iii) It represents the home of all soil living
(iv) It holds water and air for both plant
and animal activities.

ii) Organic Matter
The organic matter represents the remains
of the decomposition of plants and
animals. It is about 5% of the total volume
of the soil. Leaves, roots of plants, the
residue of crops, animal dung etc when
they are deposited on the soil decay to
form a dark colour on the upper part of
soil to form organic matter also called

Importance/effects of Organic Matter on

(i) It is very rich in plant nutrients.
(ii) It is the habitat of many soil micro-
(iii) It is the leaching in soil where it is
present in adequate amount.
(iv) It also prevents soil erosion and

(3a) Soil requirement
– Sandy
– Loamy Soil
– Method of propagation
– Seed spacing
– 2590cm or 3075cm

Disease – Cowpea mosaic pests
(i) Pod borers
(ii) Bean beetle

(i) Crop rotation
(ii) Use of resistant variety
(iii) Appropriate tillage operation
(iv) Hand picking

(i) Bush burning
(ii) Irregular felling of trees
(iii) Building roads and buildings
(iv) industrialization

Ley farming is an agricultural system where the field is alternatively cultivated and left to go through a fallow or rest period.

Alley farming: This is a method of planting in which row of a crop are sown between rows to ensure spacing and proper yield.
(5a) Soil requirement-sandy-loamy soil method of propagation-seed spacing- 2590cm or 3075cm

Disease – Cowpea mosaic pests
(i) Pod borers
(ii) Bean beetle

(i) Crop rotation
(ii) Use of resistant variety
(iii) Appropriate tillage operation
(iv) Hand picking


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