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Human And Regional Geography Neco 2017 Free Expo Answers

Friday 7th July 2017
Essay – Human and Regional Geography – 10am – 12pm


- Physical Supply Of Products
Transportation carries necessary raw materials to factory for production of goods and supplies finished goods to consumers. It creates place and time utility of goods by transporting from one place to another. It easily carries finished to the hands of those who need and use them. This significantly increases aggregate sales of goods. In fact, transport is such a key of marketing, which helps in carrying goods to the scattered consumers in different places, narrows the gap between producers and consumers and facilitates to distribute goods to the consumers at minimum cost and time.

- Specialization
Transportation facility encourages division of labor and specialization on geographical or regional basis. Transportation cost highly affects localization of industries. Production of goods may center at such place where the environment is the best and production cost is minimum. This makes maximum utilization of local resources possible, which is both economically and socially necessary.

- Mobility Of Labor And Capital
Transportation facility provides mobility to labor and capital. If more labor force is available at any place, transport helps to carry it economically to necessary place. The means of transport carry labors from one place to another. This encourages labor and capital to use and invest in more productive sectors.

- Stabilization In Price
Transportation helps to bring stability in price of different products. It transports goods from more supplied places to scarcely supplied areas. This establishes coordination between demand and supply, and brings stability in prices. It helps to supply necessary goods regularly to the consumers. Besides this,
consumers get necessary goods at lower prices, because it encourages competition among producers and makes mass production at lower cost possible.


3a)-Raw Materials:
Firms using raw materials that are costly to transport will definitely be attracted to the source of the raw material. Some firms operate in a “weight” reducing technique, where a given quantity of raw materials is processed down into a small quantity of finished products. It’s cheaper to transport the lighter finished goods to the market, than it is to transport the bulky raw materials to the industry e.g. The Kenya Orchards Ltd has got its main food processing plant at Machakos because the vegetables, which are the raw materials, are grown near Machakos.

- Markets:
Some firms find it economically viable to locate themselves as close as possible to their markets. This applies to firms which use a given quality of raw materials. They use these given raw materials to add weight to the products during the manufacturing process so that the finished products are heavier. These industries are known as the “weight” increasing industries; e.g., the brewing industries.

- . Fuel and Power:
Fuel and power do not play a vital role in East Africa as it does in the established industrial centers of Europe and North America, which substitute electricity with coal. Most firms in East Africa use electricity as their main source of power and this can be transported over long distances and at low costs. However, major electricity generating plants may attract a conglomeration of firms especially those which use large quantities of electricity. This can be well illustrated by the concentration of many industries near Owen Falls at Jinja, Uganda. Owen Falls is Uganda’s electricity generating plant.

- 4. Labor:
Due to high levels of unemployment in Nigeria, unskilled labor is usually available throughout the region. Therefore, firms requiring skilled and semi-skilled labor will have to locate themselves in the already established industrial centers in major towns or be prepared to undertake intensive training programmes.



5b)Tin Mining Process:
Tin is extracted by roasting the mineral casseterite with carbon in a furnace to approximately 2500 degrees Fahrenheit. The next step involves leaching with acid or water solutions to remove impurities. Electrostatic or magnetic separation helps to remove any heavy metal impurities.

5c-Industrial development
-Increase in employment
- Agricultural development
- Source of energy
- Development of self dependency

- Industrial development :
If the mineral resources can be extracted and utilized , mineral based industries can be established and expanded . Petrol , diesel , iron , coal, etc. are minerals for industries . This accelerates the industrial development.

- Increase in employment:
The existence of mineral resource provides employment opportunity to the people. Mineral resources help to establish the new industries where skilled and unskilled people can get employment opportunity.

- Agricultural development :
Some mineral resources are used to make modern agricultural tools machines and fertilizers , etc. They can be used for the modernization and commercialization of agriculture , which help to develop the agriculture .

- Source of energy:
There are various sources of energy like petrol , diesel , natural gas, etc. in Nepal. If these minerals can be extracted, they can provide the necessary energy for industrial sectors and house hold use.

- Development of self dependency :
If we develop mineral resource based industries , we can create more jobs with quality products . We will be independent when industrialization occurs with the uses of mineral resources.


(6b) Agriculture - Most of the people living in the area engage in the domestication of animals and cultivation of land - due to the presence of fertile soil.

- Mining : The region is also characterised with mining of solid minerals like limestones.

- Human Habitation : it is suitable for human habitation. It favours the construction of good transport network.

- craft type industries - The people engaged in the production of mats, ceramics etc.


- water shortage
- unpredictable weather
- desert encroacment
- Rural - urban migration

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